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What do I do when my wine is corked?

What do I do when my wine is corked?

The other night, we were so excited to open a bottle of wine that is delicious (and has a bit of nostalgia attached to it: it was one of the wines we fell in love with during our first trip to Spain). We opened the […]

The “Breaditerranean” diet: Pa de Pages Catala (Catalan country bread)

The “Breaditerranean” diet: Pa de Pages Catala (Catalan country bread)

I’ve been living in Barcelona two years: it’s high time we talked about what I’m calling the “Breaditerranean diet” and its Catalan staple, pa de pages (“country bread”). This large, round loaf with a thick crust is sold is most bakeries, and while it might […]

Pompeii or Herculaneum? How to choose a day trip from Naples or Sorrento

Pompeii or Herculaneum? How to choose a day trip from Naples or Sorrento

The chance to wander an ancient Roman city, complete with well-preserved temples, homes, mosaics, and baths? It’s no wonder why so many visitors to Southern Italy take the trek to Pompeii to see the incredible ruins of a city devastated by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 A.D. While doing research, you might also come across a suggestion of visiting neighboring Herculaneum, another city destroyed by the volcanic eruption. A visit to both cities is highly suggested, but if you only have time for one day trip, which should you choose? The following includes some information about Pompeii and Herculaneum to help you make such a (sigh) tough choice. #TravelProblems #NoOneFeelsSorryForYou


Before you go: fascinating facts about Pompeii and Herculaneum

It’s always fun to know a bit about your destination before arriving, especially when it has such a fascinating story! Here are some facts to help you better appreciate your visit:

  • The eruption of Vesuvius was thought to have occurred on August 24, 79 A.D. This was one day after the Roman festival Vulcanalia, which celebrated the Roman god of fire (including volcanoes). Coincidence? Perhaps . . .
  • (Important, not-so-fun note: Later evidence found in the excavations–including the warmer weather clothes worn by the victims and the uncovered vegetables, typically ripe in October–suggest that the eruption may have been in November. But we are sticking to the August date, because it’s much more fun.)
  • The victims were long thought to have died because of ash suffocation, but recent evidence suggests they passed from the eruption’s heat which, even miles away, has been scientifically proven to be deadly.  
  • Tephra, the material produced by a volcanic eruption, rained down on Pompeii for about six hours and left 12 layers over 25 meters (75 feet) deep.
  • Pliny the Younger observed the eruption from Misenum in the Bay of Naples and recorded the experience, albeit 25 years later. His uncle, Pliny the Elder (an admiral of a navy fleet), died in the eruption. Read Pliny the Younger’s verbatim account of his uncle’s death here.
  • Both Pompeii and Herculaneum were forgotten until 1599, when they were unearthed while an underground channel was being dug. An architect, Domenico Fontana, was called to investigate: Fontana uncovered several frescoes and then buried them again. Some believe that the nature of the paintings (probably sexual, as many other artifacts that were later uncovered were) could have, for lack of a better word, turned Fontana off to the discovery.
  • Herculaneum was “officially” discovered in 1738 when workers digging the foundations of a summer home for the King of Naples unearthed ruins. The excavations helped promote the wealth and political and cultural strength of Naples.
  • Pompeii was rediscovered ten years later, in 1748, by Rocque Joauin de Alcubierre, a Spanish military engineer.
  • Perhaps the person who receives the most credit (at least as I remember in my history books) was Guiseppe Fiorelli, who took over the sites in 1864. Fiorelli realized that the empty spaces they had often unearthed were in fact once the spaces inhabited by bodies, which had since decomposed. He devised the method of injecting plaster into the spaces, thus creating a mold in the form of a body. (See photos below.)
  • As mentioned above, many sexual items and frescoes have been recovered. They are on display at the Naples National Archaeological Museum, which is worth a visit.
Bay of Naples map
A map of the area of affected by Vesuvius. Note that Pompeii was once on the coast, but thousands of years later, is slightly inland. Map by Mapmaster. 

Pompeii vs. Herculaneum


With over 2.5 million visitors a year and its listing as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Pompeii is most certainly the more popular of the two locations. It is also the most expansive: before the eruption, this seaside town was home to approximately 11,000 people. When visiting, make sure to bring comfortable walking shoes and take care when walking on the streets, which are made of stones and have large spaces between each brick. There is little shade in Pompeii, so use caution on a hot day.

Ominous Vesuvius in the background of Pompeii. In the foreground: the Forum.
Exploring the baths, private homes, and temples can take all day, and is a day well spent.

Pompeii offers a look at Roman houses, temples, baths, gardens, and public areas, like the amphitheatre. You can’t see it all in one day, so I suggest doing some research beforehand and creating a list of “must-sees.” This website provides a breakdown of the city into ten regions and explains what you can see in each area, including everything from tanneries to latrines. But also make sure to leave some time to wander, which is always the best part of traveling! Pompeii is so large that you can easily get lost, in the best way possible.


Here are some of Pompeei’s many highlights:

  • The brothel. Ancient porn! Suggestive frescoes, small rooms with stone beds . . . enough said.
  • The Forum baths. Take a trip inside and see the well-preserved baths, including the Roman’s method of heating the baths.
  • The Villa of the Mysteries. The beautiful color of the walls alone is worth the walk, and since you’re taking a bit of a hike to get there, you probably won’t run into too many visitors.
  • The amphitheatre. This expansive ruin really lets your imagination run wild.

For more information, click out Pompeii online.

Fiorelli’s plaster molds have allowed us to see–in great, albeit haunting, detail–the bodies of some of the victims.


Herculaneum was the richer of the two cities, which is obvious after a tour of the ruins: there are more expansive houses, more impressive mosaics, and more lavish marble in the remains. Although a much smaller city, its ruins are also more dense, better preserved, and offer more complete homes and mosaics.


Herculaneum was also destroyed in a different way than Pompeii, which has affected how well its ruins are preserved. Due to the winds that day, Pompeii was severely affected by the first day of Vesuvius’ eruption, and many of the roofs collapsed under the weight of the falling ash. Herculaneum, however, lay west of Vesuvius, thus escaping this first crushing layer of ash (and, for many, escaping death: although 300 skeletons were recently discovered on the sea shore, it is widely believed that many residents fled after the first eruption, perhaps explaining why fewer plaster bodies have been recovered). The slower-falling ash covered and preserved wood and other organic objects (beds, roofs, doors, and even food!) better than in Pompeii, resulting in much more impressive ruins.

Herculaneum, Neptune and Salacia, wall mosaic in House Number 22
Herculaneum, Neptune and Salacia, wall mosaic in House Number 22.


  • House # 22: the mosaics are incredible in this well-preserved home.
  • The marble floors of many buildings and homes.
  • The beautiful arches of the city’s entrance.

Choosing between Pompeii and Herculaneum

When trying to decide between the two ancient cities, consider several factors: what you will see, the length of the trip, and the size of each city. A trip to smaller Herculaneum might be a better choice on a hot day–or for someone who is not able to walk very far–while Pompeii might be better for someone looking for an all-day excursion and a chance to explore an expansive, ancient city. If you are more interested in seeing well-preserved ruins, seriously consider Herculaneum: the homes and their marbles and mosaics are stunning and, since Herculaneum is smaller, you have much more time to explore and enjoy each “exhibit” in this “open museum.”


To recap:


  • Pros: Larger, more recognizable, more plaster bodies to better understand Fiorelli’s method of preservation, more to explore, more impressive houses, the Forum, and amphitheater.
  • Cons: Heavily trafficked, very hot most of the year, difficult to walk around if you have problems walking for hours.


  • Pros: Smaller, more intimate, better frescoes, less crowds, more shady areas during the heat, roads are easier to walk on, better preserved homes and mosaics.
  • Cons: Less recognizable, less plaster bodies, smaller city, much of the site has yet to be excavated.
An old “pub.”

So . . . where to? At the end of the day, both offer an incredible opportunity to see gorgeous ruins while exploring ancient cities: the experience cannot be understated! When deciding between the two, take into account the atmosphere of each site, weather conditions, and personal interests before choosing. And regardless of the site you choose, I highly suggest a visit to Naples’ National Archaeological Museum, which holds many of the relics, mosaics, artwork, jewelry, and BEAUTIFUL sculptures uncovered from both sites. Oh, and there’s a really awesome/hilarious/intriguing sex section, with everything from sex toys to small sculptures with enlarged . . . parts. It’s kind of worth it for that room alone.

10 off-the-beaten-path things to do in Barcelona

10 off-the-beaten-path things to do in Barcelona

Do you need an off-the-beaten-path list for Barcelona? After seeing the Gothic Quarter, surviving La Rambla, touring the museums, and ooohing over the Sagrada Familia and Park Guell, you might want to spend some time exploring the city, getting lost, and sampling some of the best foods and beverages […]

I went all the way to Portugal to eat Pastéis de Nata, and it was worth it.

I went all the way to Portugal to eat Pastéis de Nata, and it was worth it.

OK, truth be told, this tasty treat wasn’t the ONLY reason I went to Portugal . . . but Pastéis de nata was the first thing on my list of “must-eats.” And true to my plans, we arrived in Lisbon, dropped off our bags, and […]

Questions to ask during a wine tasting

Questions to ask during a wine tasting

Wine tasting is intimate, which is what makes it so wonderful . . . and yet so intimidating. Part of the pressure of this intimacy lies in our lack of knowledge about wine, which can make for awkward silences and nervousness. Not to worry: here are some questions that you can ask during a wine tasting that will help you understand a little more about the wine making process and help you avoid being tongue-tied. Then you can relax and focus on the important part of tasting wine: being social, drinking something delicious, and having fun!

Questions to ask during a wine tasting

Questions regarding wines that are a blend

If the wine is a blend of two or more grapes, ask what each of these varietals brings to the wine. Maybe you’re smelling cherries in the wine: which varietal is bringing this characteristic? Sometimes, even the smallest amount (2%) can change a wine. Ask why and learn a little about how these varietals can make big differences.

Example: What does the (Merlot/Cabernet Franc/Petit Verdot) add to the wine? 

Example: Which of the wines contribute to the (cherry/dark fruit/jam) I am smelling?

If the wine is a mix of varietals, ask if they always have the same percentage of each grape. Perhaps the year before, they used more or less. The wine maker or winery employ will be glad to explain why they chose this composition.

Example: Did you use the same composition of varietals in the wine last year?

Dennis Jarvis.
Learn more about how a barrel is made here. Photo by Dennis Jarvis.

Questions regarding barrels/aging 

Part of the flavor profile often includes a description of whether or not the (typically red) wine was aged in French or American oak barrels, and for how long. To understand the importance of this part of the wine making process, click here.

Example: What flavors do the American/French oak barrels impart?

Example: In past years, have you aged the wine for the same amount of time?

White wines will often not have any barrel aging (or minimal barrel aging) and are instead fermented in large vats. Feel free to ask about how these wines are fermented and aged, and see if you can pick up any flavors that the oak has imparted into the wine if it indeed has barrel contact.

Example: Does this wine have any contact with barrels? For how long? And how does that change the wine?

Jim Fischer.
Jim Fischer.

Questions on vineyard practices

Grapes are harvested in the fall. If you’re wine tasting any time between February and the harvest season, ask about the weather for this year and how they think it will affect the vintage. Overwatering is bad for grapes, so a particularly rainy season could cause worry for winemakers. Additionally, if it’s been a typically dry season (hello, California) you could ask if they irrigate their vineyards, and how often.

Example: Is the drought in California affecting your grapes?

Example: I heard that there will be an El Niño storm next winter. Will this affect your grapes at all?

Learn more about specific wine regions by reading our article “The World’s Major Wine Regions” and check out our pages on the history of wine in ArgentinaItaly, Australia, and the United States.

Questions about the grounds/the winery

The grounds themselves are often something that wineries are proud of. In addition, each winery has a story. Learning the story is often more interesting than the wine itself!

Example: When was this winery founded?

Example: Do you know what wines they made at the beginning?

Questions regarding pairings

It’s always a safe bet to ask what foods a wine would pair best with. Or, go the other way and explain your favorite dish to make, and ask them which wine they would serve with it.

San Sebastian food3
Want to learn more about pairing wines? Check out our extensive article on Wine Pairings and our Quick Guide to Food and Wine Pairing.

Example: What would you pair this with?

Example: I make a delicious beef stew with peppers. Which wine would you recommend serving with it?

Another idea is to pair by season.

Example: What’s your go-to summer/winter/spring/fall wine?


Questions regarding sparkling wine

As discussed in our Overview of Sparkling Wine, there are several different ways to put the bubbles into the wine. Ask them about this process and they will talk all day. Don’t be intimidated because you don’t know the terminology: the staff is there to teach you!

ExampleSilly question, but . . . how do you get the bubbles into the wine? 

Example: I heard that there are several different ways of producing the bubbles in sparkling wine. Could you explain your process?

General Questions 

Why do you use this particular bottle shape?

(If using screwtops or plastic corks) How long have you used these synthetic corks? (Customers are often unhappy about these corks, but winemakers love them: they reduce the possibility of wine taint drastically and are a great business practice, albeit one that takes all the fun out of opening a bottle.)

(If the label is interesting) Could you tell me a little about this label design?

If I buy this wine, is there a time frame in which I should drink it? Can it/should it be aged? 

For more information on wines and wine tasting, check out our Wine Tips for Beginners article on Hello Giggles, or browse Sedimentality for our articles on Pairings, Aromas in Wine, and How Wine is Made. Be sure to check out our Variety Focus to learn about the most commonly grown grapes. Happy drinking!



Five culinary reasons to visit Uruguay

Five culinary reasons to visit Uruguay

If you’re an American and you live in Argentina without some sort of extended visa, then you are accustomed to the visaron (visa run). Every 90 days, you must buy a ticket for the ferry across the Rio de la Plata, enter Uruguay, stay for the […]

Eating through San Sebastian: a love note for this culinary corner

Eating through San Sebastian: a love note for this culinary corner

I was so overwhelmed, so intrigued, so inspired, and so impressed with the food from the Basque Country that when I arrived home after my first trip, I simply couldn’t write about it. There were no words that would do justice to the place and […]

Spanish Torrija, French toast taken to a new level

Spanish Torrija, French toast taken to a new level

Let’s talk about desserts. Specifically, Spanish desserts. And let’s do ourselves and not mention the f word (flan).

The first time I tried torrija was on the biggest “fat kid” excursion of my life: when I wandered the streets of San Sebastian and tried pintxo after pintxo after pintxo. Traditional pintxos–like tortilla and stuffed red pepper and anything topped with ham–and inventive, new-age pintxos, like sauteed chicken hearts, or foie gras with a black tea yogurt and freeze-dried berries. I was in a special place during that trip. Sigh.

It was during these wanderings that I first met torrija, a once-stale piece of bread that’s been soaked in milk overnight, spiced with cinnamon and honey other “secret things,” and then fried. I love French toast, but torrija takes the concept to another level.

If you can’t make it to the Basque country anytime soon, you can try your hand at torrija. Check out this recipe from The Guardian and this one from Spanish It’s easy as pie. Well, toast. Or maybe pudding.

Beach bars at their best: the Spanish chiringuito

Beach bars at their best: the Spanish chiringuito

I once read on a language learning thread that chiringuito is one of those words that simply cannot be translated from Spanish to English. “Beach bar” is as close as I can come, but those words don’t do justice to the laid-back, sometimes-dodgy, always-fun feel […]